Scoliosis Education

Scoliosis Overview

Scoliosis types-

  • Congenital Scoliosis – A Scoliosis generally formed from an abnormal vertebrae. (Minor Fixation to Severe & invasive surgeries needed)

  • (AIS) Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis – A Scoliosis not disease or condition related (most common) (numerous potential causes)

  • Neuromuscular – disease or condition related to the nervous system causing errors in normal function of postural stabilisers and surrounding muscles. (Stroke, Parkinsons, MS, MD, Severe Injuries) 

  • Paralytic – paralysis induced scoliosis as a result of loss of normal function of postural stabilisers and surrounding muscles. (PNF can be used) (Paraplegia & Quadriplegia)

Common causes for Scoliosis:

  • Initial stage- loss of natural curvature ( natural curvature of spine act as a weight bearing spring, without natural posterior/anterior curves, the vertebral column flexes laterally, known as – scoliosis) use string example.

  • Prolonged seating/lying in unnatural positions.

  • Weak or Paralysed spinal extensors and surrounding postural stabiliser muscles (Likely Paralytic cause)

  • Undiagnosed injury

  • Repetitive uni/single sided activities/actions/habits. (Unregulated detrimental daily living habits)

Spasm and tone. Alongside paralysis of spinal extensors, a paralytic scoliosis could be exaggerated by or caused by muscle spasticity and tone in back, abdomen, legs or pelvic muscle groups pulling your spinal column or pelvis in undesirable & unstable directions

  • Trapezius – cervical accessory nerve of C3, C4. – extends from occipital to c7 through to T12

  • Latissimus dorsi – thoracodorsal nerve of C6, C7 and C8. Extends from humerus to T7 through to L4 and attaches to posterior lip of iliac crest

  • Rhomboids-sub trapezius- nerve supply- cervical nerve of C4 and C5.


 Anterior Stabilisers:

  • Serratus Anterior – nerve supply; C5,C6 and C7. Stabilises shoulder girdle- antagonist of trapezius and rhomboids


Posterior Proprioceptive Stabilisers;

  • Erector Spinae- ( multifidus, longissimus and illiocostalis) nerve supply, posterior branch of each facet joint.) multifidus and longissimuss extend the entire length of the spine. Illiocoastalis extends from the illiac crest on your pelvis to the top of the ribcage


         Lumbar Spine & Pelvic Stabilisers:

  • Quadratis Lumborum – nerve supply; T12 through L4) extends from lateral portion of the iliac crest to the twelfth thoracic vertebrae and twelfth rib.



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